Don't Ever Stop | Student Responsibility and Proficiency Ladders
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Student Responsibility and Proficiency Ladders

  |   PersonalIzed Mastery

Gene and Copper are working with teachers and administrators in  Durango 9R School District in tools and processes to implement proficiency ladders in a personalized mastery environment.  For his Masters Degree through the Boettcher Teacher Residency Program, Jackson Eubank, a 4th grade teacher, conducted some action research in his classroom using proficiency ladders to support his students’ learning and responsibility.  He gave us permission to reprint his case study.

Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION

As the above cartoon depicts, the responsibility for student learning and success has undergone a shift from the student to the teacher (The Horace Mann League, 2015). The reality of this shift is making our students less responsible in school and thus teaching them to be less responsible in life. As our students move forward into the 21st century, they must take more ownership of their learning. This project explores a tool that could help shift back some of that responsibility.

Problem Statement

        Are students too dependent on teachers for their learning? Can teachers increase student ownership of learning in their classrooms? The answers to these questions hold importance for both teachers and students. Research states that students are more engaged and motivated when they are involved in the process by setting goals and having choice (Çubukçu, 2012 and Davis, 2010). I am currently employed in a Title I elementary school in Southwest Colorado teaching fourth grade. This year our school is being trained to implement a tool called Proficiency Ladders. In order to explore student ownership of learning, I conducted an action research project focused on the following question: What will be the effect on student responsibility of learning from the implementation of Proficiency Ladders with student explanatory writing? I want to know if this tool actually helps students take ownership in their learning or if this tool is just another mandate from my administration. If Proficiency Ladders prove to be an effective tool, my plan is to work toward implementing them with other standards in reading, writing, and mathematics.

Purpose Statement

        The purpose of this case study was to explore the implementation of Proficiency Ladders with explanatory writing for fourth grade students in a rural Title I elementary school in Southwest Colorado.

Significance of Study

        This study has importance both to myself as well as to my field as an educator. As I begin my career as an educator, I need all the help that I can get to be efficient and effective. I want to be efficient so that I can enjoy my career and enjoy my life outside of my work as an educator. I want to be effective so that my students can learn well and walk away with skills for living. I see the potential for Proficiency Ladders to help me achieve both of those aspirations. First, Proficiency Ladders could help make me a more efficient teacher by putting the ownership of learning on the student. This would take pressure off of me as a teacher to try to make students learn. This tool is designed to empower students to see where they are and where they need to be. By giving students back responsibility for their learning, it could excite and challenge them to learn. In addition, students are tracking their progress and showing evidence of their learning. By managing the students and the Proficiency Ladders, I could easily access information to group students or to record grades.  This would allow me to become a much more efficient teacher. Secondly, Proficiency Ladders could make me a more effective teacher by creating an IEP for each student. By using Proficiency Ladders, essentially each of my students would have a personalized education plan. Students would be tracking where they are in the progress toward mastery and I could meet with them and help them where they need it. I would become a more effective teacher because my instruction would become exactly what each student needs it to be.

        I think this study also benefits other educators who desire to shift the responsibility of learning back to the student. I believe that teachers should be aware of such tools that can help improve their efforts as an educator. Teachers are often blamed for the poor performance of their students. With this tool, the students would carry more responsibility for their learning, which I believe would create a healthier learning environment for both the teacher and the student.

Chapter 2 LITERATURE REVIEW

In the quest to promote student responsibility of learning, educators must first understand what the term responsibility means. The word responsibility has several definitions, which include having obligation, being accountable, and acting independently 1. When considering shifting responsibility of learning to the student, each of these definitions applies. Teachers want students to recognize their obligation to learn, to be accountable for their learning, and to act independently in their learning. The question must be asked: How are teachers able to do all of these things?

Obligation: Student Motivation

        In order for students to accept responsibility for their learning, teachers must work toward motivating them. This can often present a challenge in a diverse classroom because “the source of motivation is internal to the self” (Nichols, 2006). Margolis and McCabe (2006) encourage teachers to motivate and encourage students by helping them to believe in themselves. This is often referred to as self-efficacy, the student’s belief that they can accomplish tasks (Margolis & McCabe, 2006). In the classroom, Dweck (2014) suggests that teachers should strive to instill a growth mindset in students. By praising effort and process in students and not product, students can believe that they are capable of greater capacity. This mindset can become motivational to them in their learning. Teachers can also scaffold work by giving students appropriately challenging tasks (Margolis & McCabe, 2006; Lewis-Moreno, 2007). Vygotsky (1978) referred to this as moving students into the zone of proximal development. However, because of the numerous standards and evidence outcomes, teachers with limited experience with scaffolding can find this challenging.

Accountability: Goal Orientation

        As students take on responsibility for their learning, they must be accountable for their learning. Setting goals acts as a motivator for students (Çubukçu, 2012). Research has demonstrated that learners operate within two types of achievement goals: performance and mastery goals (Grant & Dweck, 2003; Kaufman & Dodge, 2009).  Performance goals are those where students feel they are in competition with others, while with mastery goals students feel they are in competition with themselves. Kaufman and Dodge (2009) demonstrated that students with mastery goals showed increased internal motivation for their work.

        Accountability for learning comes when goals are set. Teachers are encouraged to work with students to establish goals and monitor progress toward those goals (Margolis & McCabe, 2006). This also opens opportunity for teachers to provide feedback for students, which is a crucial part of student learning and success (Margolis & McCabe, 2006; Picón Jácome, 2012; Nichols, 2006; Li-Shih, 2003). When students set goals, they then become accountable for achieving them.

Independence: Learner-Centered Classrooms

        Finally, when students become responsible for their learning, they take on a certain amount of independence. Research supports that learner-centered classrooms require students to become independent and take ownership of their learning (Limbach & Waugh, 2014; An & Reigeluth, 2011). Learner-centered classrooms invite the students to engage in meaningful, relevant learning often through engaging activities or problem-based learning (Limbach & Waugh, 2014; Bate, et al., 2014; Davis, 2010). By participating in these activities, students are allowed to construct their own learning. To further engage the current culture that students live in, teachers can also integrate technology into their learner-centered classrooms (An & Reigeluth, 2011; Kayler & Sullivan 2011). By embracing a learner-centered classroom, teachers help students become lifelong learners who have critical thinking skills that will help them succeed in their future (Limbach & Waugh, 2014; An & Reigeluth, 2011).

Proficiency Ladders

        Proficiency Ladders, a concept created by Copper Stoll and Gene Giddings (2012), appear to bring an answer for teachers who are looking at instilling responsibility in their learners. Proficiency Ladders are a tool that teachers use with students that break down each standard in reading, writing, and mathematics into a series of steps that move students from emerging to partially proficient to proficient and also encourages them to move on to mastery. The concept is that each standard is met at the proficient level. The levels prior to that are the knowledge and skills that are foundational building blocks that students need in order to meet that standard. The mastery, or advanced, step is where students are challenged to take their knowledge and skill and apply it into their lives and their world.

        Proficiency Ladders help students to move toward taking responsibility by accepting their obligation for learning. To begin, the standards are clearly laid out before the students. This shows them what is expected of them as they move through their grade level. The design of the Proficiency Ladders then promotes motivation in the students by breaking the standard down into achievable steps. As Margolis and McCabe (2006) pointed out, students need work to believe they can accomplish the task and given appropriately challenging tasks. The Proficiency Ladder scaffolds each standard and puts that into the students’ hands to see what it will take to work toward proficiency and beyond.

        Second, Proficiency Ladders help encourage accountability with the students by putting the steps in their possession. The teacher no longer is the one who holds the information on what proficiency looks like, students have a clear picture of what it is and what it takes to get there. The ladders also act as a goal-setting device, where a student is constantly looking at where they are and what they need to do to progress up the ladder. This encourages students to focus on their own work, to work toward the more important mastery goals and not performance goals (Dweck, 1995; Grant & Dweck, 2003; Kaufman & Dodge, 2009). The design of the Proficiency Ladders also promotes feedback, as students must present evidence of each step in order to move forward. As noted earlier, feedback is a necessary component of student learning and success (Margolis & McCabe, 2006; Picón Jácome, 2012; Nichols, 2006; Li-Shih, 2003).

        Finally, Proficiency Ladders help encourage classrooms to be more learner-centered, which promotes independence. Proficiency Ladders give the steps to showing proficiency, but the evidence is left up to the teacher and really the student. Teachers can leverage this to their advantage by encouraging students to think through the evidence they want to present to show their achievement. Stoll and Giddings (2012) encourage teachers to use choice boards for students to pick what types of evidence they want to show for each step in the ladder. By using the ladders, students move towards a personalized learning at their own pace, an important principle of learner-centered classrooms (An & Reigeluth, 2011). To reach the advanced step in the ladder students must think through how to apply their learning in their lives. This application component is an important part of learner-centered classrooms and is often where students’ learning is cemented (An & Reigeluth, 2011).

        Proficiency Ladders lay out the obligation that the student has for the class by naming a standard on each ladder. They bring accountability to learning that standard by helping the student to set goals for their learning. They also encourage independence by giving students choice in producing evidence to show their learning. Proficiency Ladders appear to have the answer for teachers’ questions about increasing student responsibility. However, one final question remains: Do Proficiency Ladders really promote student responsibility?

Chapter 3 METHODS

Participants

This study focused on a fourth grade classroom in a rural Title I school in the Durango 9-R School District in southwest Colorado. The class is comprised of 13 students of which 6 are females and 7 are males.  I am a 33 year old male in my first year of teaching. The school is in its first year of implementing Proficiency Ladders across all grade levels. Therefore, students did not have any prior knowledge of this tool.

Data

Students were given a survey to fill out to express their thoughts on their own responsibility or ownership of their learning. This survey (see Appendix A) included 9 questions in which the students either agreed, disagreed, or expressed uncertainty. In this survey, there were three questions focused on each of the three components of responsibility: obligation, accountability, and independence. Additionally, students were asked to write a short constructed response expressing their thoughts or beliefs about their responsibility of their learning. In the post-implementation survey an additional constructed response question was asked about the students perspectives of the Proficiency Ladders. Finally, during the implementation of the Proficiency Ladders, I kept a journal to record my thoughts and observations as well as comments students made about the Proficiency Ladders.

Timeline

The students were given the survey during the week of October 21st as a pre-data collection. Over the next month I administered, taught, and used Proficiency Ladders for their explanatory writing. For the Proficiency Ladder and Choice Board please see Appendix B. During the week of November 16th students were asked to complete the post-survey.

Analysis

Once the pre- and post-data was collected, I analyzed the data. I looked for changes in their responses on the multiple choice questions as well as looked for trends in their constructed response question. The goal was to try to identify the attitude of the students toward their responsibility of their learning and to see if there was a change in that attitude. The student responses to the additional question in the post-survey about their experience with Proficiency Ladders was compared with my journal of student comments about the tool. Again, the focus was on any change in attitude toward the responsibility in their learning as well as if they felt the Proficiency Ladder empowered them to take more responsibility.

Chapter 4 RESULTS

The results of the survey revealed a slight trend toward an increase in students having more responsibility of their learning. Since the sample of this survey was quite small, the results do not reveal any statistically significant changes in the student attitudes. However, a few points of interest need to be discussed. Remember that the survey was organized to ask questions about each part of responsibility: obligation, accountability, and independence. For graphs of the survey responses please see Appendix C.

Survey Results

With regards to students recognizing their obligation, students showed a trend of having more responsibility. The greatest increase of any part of the survey, nearly 40% of students, was with the first question which dealt with knowing the Colorado State Standard for explanatory writing. I believe this is because the way that the Proficiency Ladder sets the standard in front of the students. I also spent a significant amount of time talking with the students about the standard and the different components of the standard. This is encouraging because it is important for students to know what is expected of them.

The students showed the most amount of change of the three areas of responsibility with the questions regarding accountability. Nearly 25% more students showed a change in their responsibility in this area on all three questions. I believe the use of the Proficiency Ladder helped students to recognize what level they were on and to set goals of being a proficient 4th grade writer. The way the ladders organize and help students keep track of their progress motivates them.

The results from the questions on the area of independence actually showed little change. This surprised me because I created a choice board to go with the Proficiency Ladder. I thought the choice board would have given them more of a sense of independence. My observations in the classroom support that idea but the survey did not. When given the choices, students seemed to be more excited and motivated to work on their writing than with a traditional prompt given to the entire class.

The constructed response question also revealed an interesting insight into students’ thoughts on what responsibility means. Nearly half, 6 out of 13, of the students commented in the pre-survey that responsibility has to do with not being distracted. As one student stated, “My responsibility is to not get distracted with my learning.” Four students made similar remarks in the post-survey. While this is a part of being a good learner, I would not have thought of being responsible solely as not being distracted.

Perspectives of Proficiency Ladders

The student constructed responses on the post-survey and the entries from my own journal revealed some consistent themes around the use of the Proficiency Ladders. The first two themes arose from the student responses and the third comes from my teacher journal. The first theme was that students experienced some confusion with the tool. This is somewhat to be expected as this is the first year and their first full exposure to the Proficiency Ladder tool. Students were confused by the structure and format of the ladder. Students made the following statements, “It is kind of confusing. It is kind of hard,” and “Sometimes it could be complicated because of all the writing on the side.” As the teacher, I also noticed some confusion with the use of the ladder because students would submit a piece of writing and expect to be signed off on certain level. They seemed confused not only on the format of the tool but how to use the tool.

A second theme that arose from the student responses was that students liked the tool and found it helpful. This response came from nearly half of the students. One student stated, “I think that the Proficiency Ladders help me know what is expected and what level I am at. It also helps me know how much I grow in my writing. And it helps me think how I am going to meet my goal.” Another student commented, “The Proficiency Ladder helps me know what level I am at. It also helps me be organized.” These comments were encouraging because I think it is significant for students to know where they are with their writing so they can improve.

A final theme that arose from my own journaling was that using Proficiency Ladders takes a lot of time. I began by giving the students a writing assignment to place them on the ladder. It took a considerable amount of time to sit down with each student to have a conference about where they were to start on their ladder. Additionally, it required a significant amount of time to meet with students to review their work and give feedback to help them progress along the ladder. I felt like I could have been able to do most of that in a far less amount of time by myself, but I think conferencing with the student is the best way the help them in their writing. I think some of this stems from the newness of the tool for both the student and myself.

Future for Proficiency Ladders

Having performed my action research on implementing Proficiency Ladders in my classroom, I would like to continue to develop and use Proficiency Ladders in my classroom in the future. Students seemed to find the ladders helpful to them. I would like to continue to build upon this. I think through using them I will become better at implementing them with the students. My research revealed that more students understood the standards from having used the Proficiency Ladder. I think it is important for students to have a clear picture of what is expected of them. When students understand their obligation clearly, they are able to work towards achieving it. Furthermore, students showed an increase in their accountability to their work, which I want to continue to encourage. I believe the Proficiency Ladders helped students to see where they were in their work and to set goals for where they wanted to be. I would like to learn and teach the students to have a better conference about their work as this was an area that took considerable amounts of my time. Research proves that goal setting and teacher conferencing is highly effective in increasing student learning and performance (Margolis & McCabe, 2006; Picón Jácome, 2012; Nichols, 2006; Li-Shih, 2003). Finally, after introducing the choice board to the students, I saw students take a lot of ownership of their writing through researching topics and collaborating with one another. My classroom noticeably became more learner-centered with students having choice and able to express individual interest in their work. I felt like pressure to create one writing prompt that was engaging to my diverse classroom was removed. By using the choice board, students were able to have some independence and to engage in their writing on a topic of their interest. As research shows, students succeed when learning is engaging and relevant (Limbach & Waugh, 2014; Bate, et al., 2014; Davis, 2010).

I plan on continuing to use the Proficiency Ladders with narrative and opinion writing over the rest of the year. I will need to adjust some things in my use of the Proficiency Ladder with those areas. I will need to work on creating my choice board further ahead of time to ensure quality options for my students. I also will need to more clearly teach the students how to use the choice board to provide evidence of their proficiency. Some students expressed confusion in using the choice board. Additionally, I will need to teach my students how to lead a conference about a piece of writing. I think this will help guide the students in working on particular areas of their writing by identifying the areas they are doing well in and areas they need to work on. Finally, I will need to work on helping students experience success with the ladders. When students are able to produce evidence and see their progress on the ladder, their motivation increases. I will need to do a better job of making time and being efficient with my time to meet with students to help them make progress on their ladder. I look forward to continuing to use this tool and to see how students will continue to increase in their responsibility for their learning.

Additionally, remember that the staff in my school has learned and worked with the Proficiency Ladders over the past few months. I am interested to see if my future students will come to my classroom with an attitude of having more responsibility and ownership in their learning. Having seen other staff members’ successes with the ladders, I am encouraged to continue to use them in my classroom. I want to continue in the work that my colleagues are investing in by using this tool.  I think using the Proficiency Ladders is a valid resource to continue to push my students, our students, toward being more responsible.

Chapter 5 CONCLUSION

In our current educational climate, students seem to take less responsibility for their learning. This attitude puts an additional burden on teachers. The question then arises: Can teachers help students take more responsibility for their learning? The purpose of this case study was to explore the implementation of Proficiency Ladders with explanatory writing for fourth grade students in a rural Title I elementary school in Southwest Colorado to see if it would help to increase student responsibility.

The term responsibility has many facets, so this project chose to focus on three of those: obligation, accountability, and independence. Research shows that students who understand what is expected of them are more motivated to learn (Margolis & McCabe, 2006). Studies also show that students become accountable by setting goals for their learning and experience growth when teachers provide feedback around those goals (Çubukçu, 2012; Picón Jácome, 2012; Nichols, 2006; Li-Shih, 2003). Finally, research supports that learner-centered classrooms require students to become independent and take ownership of their learning (Limbach & Waugh, 2014; An & Reigeluth, 2011). Copper Stoll and Gene Giddings (2012) developed a tool called Proficiency Ladders that are designed to support student mastery. This tool appears to promote student responsibility by including components of the three areas of responsibility.

This action research project focused on a class of fourth grade students in a rural Title 1 school in Southwest Colorado. Students were given a survey before and after a three week period of using the Proficiency Ladder with their explanatory writing. The survey contained multiple choice questions as well as short constructed responses. The data was analyzed and compared with a teacher journal to see if there was a change in attitude toward student responsibility.

The results of this study showed some increase in student responsibility of learning. The largest areas of increase were students knowing the state standard and feeling more accountable to their learning. While some students expressed confusion over the Proficiency Ladder, many found it helped them with their writing. Because of the results of my research, I plan on continuing the use of Proficiency Ladders in the future with narrative and opinion writing. I plan on improving my instruction of how to use the ladders to help make them less confusing and more meaningful to my students.

Although this study was conducted on a very small scale, I think demonstrates significance to teachers who are wanting to encourage an increase of student responsibility. The Proficiency Ladders align well with the different aspects of responsibility: obligation, accountability, and independence. The tool also promotes the kind of classroom that research demonstrates as being supportive of student learning and growth. When taught clearly and used consistently, Proficiency Ladders could be an effective tool in the classroom. Teachers who are interested in promoting student responsibility in their classroom would benefit by exploring the use of Proficiency Ladders.

REFERENCES

Notes

  1. (“responsibility.”) Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved September 26,
  2. http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/ american_english/responsibility

References

An, Y., & Reigeluth, C. (2011). Creating technology-enhanced, learner-centered classrooms:

K-12 teachers’ beliefs, perceptions, barriers, and support needs. Journal of digital

learning in teacher education (International society for technology in education), 28(2),

54-62.

Bate, E., Hommes, J., Duvivier, R., & Taylor, D. M. (2014). Problem-based learning (PBL):

getting the most out of your students – their roles and responsibilities: AMEE Guide No.

  1. Medical teacher, 36(1), 1-12.

Çubukçu, Z. (2012). Teachers’ evaluation of student-centered learning environments. Education,

133(1), 49-66.

Davis, L. (2010). Toward a lifetime of literacy: The effect of student-centered and skills-based

reading instruction on the experiences of children. Literacy teaching & learning: An

international journal of early reading & writing, 15(1/2), 53-79.

Dweck, C. (1995). Self theories: Their role in motivation, personality, and development.

Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.

Dweck, C. (2014). The power of believing that you can.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=_X0mgOOSpLU

Grant, H., & Dweck, C. S. (2003). Clarifying achievement goals and their impact. Journal of

personality and social psychology, 85(3), 541-553.

 

The Horace Mann League of the USA. (2015). Educational Political Cartoons. Retrieved from

http://www.hmleague.org/educational-political-cartoons/screen-shot-2014-03-09-at-11-14

-38-am/

Kaufman, A., & Dodge, T. (2009). Student perceptions and motivation in the classroom:

exploring relatedness and value. Social psychology of education, 12(1), 101-112.

Kayler, M. A., & Sullivan, L. (2011). Integrating learner-centered theory and technology to create

an engaging pedagogy for k-12 students and teachers. Journal of technology integration

in the classroom, 3(1), 99-103.

Lewis-Moreno, B. (2007). Shared responsibility: Achieving success with english-language

learners. The phi delta kappan, (10). 772-775.

Limbach, B., & Waugh, W. (2014). Implementing a high-impact, critical thinking process in a

learner-centered environment. Journal of higher education theory & practice, 14(1),

95-99.

Li-Shih, H. (2003). Ten pointers for enhancing learners’ motivation. Business communication

quarterly, 66(4), 88-95.

Margolis, H., & McCabe, P. P. (2006). Improving self-efficacy and motivation: What to do, what

to say. Intervention in school & clinic, 41(4), 218-227.

Picón Jácome, É. (2012). Promoting learner autonomy through teacher-student partnership

assessment in an american high school: A cycle of action research. PROFILE: Issues in

teachers’ professional development, 14(2), 145-162.

Nichols, J. D. (2006). Empowerment and relationships: A classroom model to enhance student

motivation. Learning environments research, 9(2), 149-161.

Stoll, C., & Giddings, G. (2012). Reawakening the learner: Principles and tools to create school

systems for learners to achieve personalized mastery. New York, NY: Rowman and

Littlefield Education.

Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher mental process. Cambridge,

MA: Harvard University Press.

APPENDIX A

Student Survey of Responsibility

Please answer the following questions by checking the appropriate box.

 

  1. I know what the State of Colorado expects of me for my expository writing as a 4th grader.

Agree Disagree I don’t know

 

  1. I know what is required to show my proficiency in expository writing.

Agree Disagree I don’t know

 

  1. I am motivated to write at a 4th grade quality level.

Agree Disagree I don’t know

 

  1. I regularly set my own goals for my learning that I work toward accomplishing.

Agree Disagree I don’t know

 

  1. I keep track of my progress toward writing an expository paragraph that meets 4th grade expectations.

Agree Disagree I don’t know

 

  1. I know how to talk with my teacher about where I am with my progress toward proficient writing.

Agree Disagree I don’t know

 

  1. I have a sense of being able to work on my own and know I am working on the right tasks.

Agree Disagree I don’t know

 

  1. I have a choice in what I do in order to show proficiency in my expository writing.

Agree Disagree I don’t know

 

  1. I recognize that my grades are assigned to me based on the quality of working I show my teacher.

Agree Disagree I don’t know

Please answer the following questions in the space provided below.

In 3-4 sentences please describe your thoughts about your responsibility or ownership of your learning.

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

 

In 3-4 sentences please describe your experience with Proficiency Ladders and how it has impacted your thoughts on your responsibility for your learning.*

 

Thank you for being a part of this survey.*This question was asked only on the post-survey.

 

APPENDIX B

Sunnyside 4th Grade Explanatory Writing Proficiency Ladder

Name: Date Started: Date Completed:

Class/Course: Teacher: Level:

W.4.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly:

  1. Introduce a topic, and group related information in paragraphs and sections, include formatting illustrations when useful to aiding comprehension,
  2. Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations or other information and examples related to the topic,
  3. Link words within categories of information using words and phrases,
  4. Use precise language and domain specific vocabulary to information about or explain the topic,
  5. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented.
1 2 3 4 What is my evidence? Sign off/

Date

Emerging Partially Proficient Proficient Advanced
I can define what explanatory/ information texts are.
I recall the different components of an explanatory text.
I can define what introductions, transitions and conclusions are.
I can use a combination of drawing, dictating and writing to compose informative/explanatory texts in which they name what they are writing about and supply some information about the topic. (K)
I can write informative/explanatory texts in which they name a topic, supply some facts about the topic, and provide some sense of closure.(1)
I can write informative/explanatory texts in which they introduce a topic, use facts and definitions to develop points, and provide a concluding statement or section. (2)

 

I can write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly:

  1. Introduce a topic, and group related information together include illustrations when useful to aiding comprehension,
  2. Develop the topic with facts, definitions, details,
  3. Use linking words and phrases ideas within categories of information,
  4. Provide a concluding statement or section. (3)
I can write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly:

  1. Introduce a topic, and group related information in paragraphs and sections, include formatting illustrations when useful to aiding comprehension,
  2. Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations or other information and examples related to the topic,
  3. Link words within categories of information using words and phrases,
  4. Use precise language and domain specific vocabulary to information about or explain the topic.  e. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented. (4)
Score 4: Real-life application

AUTHOR - Copper Stoll